Seismica <p>Seismica is a community-driven, <em>Diamond Open Access</em> journal publishing peer-reviewed research in seismology and earthquake science. <em>Diamond Open Access</em> journals are free for all to read, without subscriptions, and do not charge article processing fees to authors.</p> <p>Seismica has been open for submission since July 2022. You can read more about the Seismica initiative in <a href="">our first editorial</a>. Thank you to all the members of the Seismica community who contributed to this editorial!</p> <p><strong>[November 2023] Seismica is soliciting submissions for a special issue, "<a href="">The Cascadia Subduction Zone: Grand Challenges and Research Frontiers</a>" For more information on submitting a paper, see the <a href="">issue announcement</a>.</strong></p> en-US (Seismica Editorial Team) (Seismica Tech Team) Fri, 12 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Testing the Predictive Power of b Value for Italian Seismicity <p>A very efficient method for estimating the completeness magnitude<em> m<sub>c</sub></em> and the scaling parameter <em>b</em> of earthquake magnitude distribution has been thoroughly tested using synthetic seismic catalogues. Subsequently, the method was employed to assess the capability of the <em>b</em>-value in differentiating between foreshocks and aftershocks, confirming previous findings regarding the Amatrice-Norcia earthquake sequence. However, a blind algorithm reveals that the discriminative ability of the <em>b</em>-value necessitates a meticulous selection of the catalogue, thereby reducing the predictability of large events occurring subsequent to a prior major earthquake.</p> Cataldo Godano, Anna Tramelli, Giuseppe Petrillo, Vincenzo Convertito Copyright (c) 2024 Cataldo Godano, Anna Tramelli, Giuseppe Petrillo, Vincenzo Convertito Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Discontinuous transtensional rupture during the Mw 7.2 1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake <p>The Gulf of Aqaba earthquake occurred on 22 November 1995 in the Northern Red Sea and is the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in the region to date. The event was extensively studied during the initial years following its occurrence. However, it remained unclear which of the many faults in the gulf were activated during the earthquake. We present results from multi-array back projection that we use to inform Bayesian kinematic rupture models constrained by geodetic and teleseismic data. Our results indicate that most of the moment release was on the Aragonese fault via left-lateral strike slip and shallow normal faulting that may have been dynamically triggered by an early rupture phase on the Arnona fault. We also identified a predominantly normal fault-segment on the eastern shore of the gulf that was activated in the event. We dismiss the previously proposed hypothesis of a co-seismic sub-event on the western shore of the gulf and confirm that observed deformation can be rather attributed to post-seismic activity. In conclusion, the gulf shows many signs of active tectonic extension. Therefore, more events close to the shorelines are to be expected in the future and should be considered conducting infrastructure projects in the region.</p> Hannes Vasyura-Bathke, Andreas Steinberg, Frank Krüger, Guangcai Feng, P. Martin Mai, Sigurjón Jónsson Copyright (c) 2024 Hannes Vasyura-Bathke, Andreas Steinberg, Frank Krüger, Guangcai Feng, P. Martin Mai, Sigurjón Jónsson Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Feasibility of Deep Learning in Shear Wave Splitting analysis using Synthetic-Data Training and Waveform Deconvolution <p>Teleseismic shear-wave splitting analyses are often performed by reversing the splitting process through the application of frequency- or time-domain operations aimed at minimizing the transverse-component energy of waveforms. These operations yield two splitting parameters, ɸ (fast-axis orientation) and δt (delay time). In this study, we investigate the applicability of a baseline recurrent neural network, SWSNet, for determining the splitting parameters from pre-selected waveform windows. Due to the scarcity of sufficiently labelled real waveform data, we generate our own synthetic dataset to train the model. The model is capable of determining ɸ and δt with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 9.7° and 0.14 s on a noisy synthetic test data. The application to real data involves a deconvolution step to homogenize the waveforms. When applied to data from the USArray dataset, the results exhibit similar patterns to those found in previous studies with mean absolute differences of 9.6° and 0.16 s in the calculation of ɸ and δt respectively.</p> Megha Chakraborty, Georg Rümpker, Wei Li, Johannes Faber, Nishtha Srivastava, Frederik Link Copyright (c) 2024 Megha Chakraborty, Georg Rümpker, Wei Li, Johannes Faber, Nishtha Srivastava, Frederik Link Sat, 23 Mar 2024 00:00:00 -0400 Apparent Non-Double-Couple Components as Artifacts of Moment Tensor Inversion <p>Compilations of earthquake moment tensors from global and regional catalogs find pervasive non-double-couple (NDC) components<br />with a mean deviation from a double-couple (DC) source of around 20%. Their distributions vary only slightly with magnitude, faulting mechanism, or geologic environments. This consistency suggests thatfor most earthquakes, especially smaller ones whose rupture processes are expected to be simpler, the NDC components are largely artifacts of the moment tensor inversion procedure. This possibility is also supported by the fact that NDC components for individual earthquakes with Mw&lt;6.5 are only weakly correlated between<br />catalogs. We explore this possibility by generating synthetic seismograms for the double-couple components of earthquakes around the<br />world using one Earth model and inverting them with a different Earth model. To match the waveforms with a different Earth model, the inversion changes the mechanisms to include a substantial NDC component while largely preserving the fault geometry (DC component). The resulting NDC components have a size and distribution similar to those reported for the earthquakes in the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) catalog. The fact that numerical experiments replicate general features of the pervasive NDC components reported in moment tensor catalogs implies that these components are largely artifacts of the inversions not adequately accounting for the effects of laterally varying Earth structure.</p> Boris Rösler, Seth Stein, Adam T. Ringler, Jiří Vackář Copyright (c) 2024 Boris Rösler, Seth Stein, Adam T. Ringler, Jiří Vackář Thu, 04 Apr 2024 00:00:00 -0400 Dispersive Elastic Moduli and Frequency-Dependent Attenuation due to Wave-Induced Fluid Flow in Metapelite <p>Seismic waves are used to interpret geologic structure, composition, and environmental conditions in the Earth. However, rocks are not perfectly elastic and their viscoelasticity can dissipate energy during wave propagation. Wave-induced fluid flow mechanisms can cause viscoelasticity resulting in frequency-dependent attenuation, velocities, and elastic moduli (dispersion) in saturated rocks. Dispersion and attenuation are hypothesized to be important in subduction zones, where regions of high fluid content are interpreted below the seismogenic zone. However, this has not been well-tested because of a lack of measurements on relevant lithologies and under saturated conditions. We measured the Young's and shear moduli and the attenuation of a greenschist facies metapelite with the forced oscillation technique at frequencies between 2 x 10<sup>-5</sup> and 30 Hz. The moduli and attenuation are frequency-dependent under saturated conditions and depend on the effective pressure. At relatively low effective pressure, the Young's and shear moduli increase by over 50 % between 2 x 10<sup>-5</sup> and 30 Hz. We use Standard Linear Solid viscoelastic models to investigate the relationship between the attenuation and dispersion in the Orocopia schist. The models are consistent with the experimental data and demonstrate that viscoelasticity can cause significant dispersion and attenuation in subduction zones.</p> Celine Fliedner, Melodie French Copyright (c) 2024 Celine Fliedner, Melodie French Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 What does my technology facilitate`? A toolbox to help researchers understand the societal impact of a technology in the context of disasters <p>Disaster risk is increasing globally. Emerging technologies – Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, and remote sensing – are becoming more important in supporting disaster risk reduction and enhancing safety culture. Despite their presumed benefits, most research focuses on their technological potential, whereas societal aspects are rarely reflected. Taking a societal perspective is vital to ensure that these technologies are developed and operated in ways that benefit societies’ resilience, comply with ethical standards, are inclusive, and address potential risks and challenges. Therefore, we were particularly interested in understanding how societal impacts can be considered and leveraged throughout the development process. Based on an explorative literature review, we developed a toolbox for professionals working on emerging technologies in disaster risk reduction. By applying a Delphi study with experts on AI in seismology, we iteratively adapted and tested the toolbox. The results show that there is a need for guided reflection in order to foster discussion on the societal impacts. They further indicate a gap in the common understanding that is crucial for developing inclusive technologies or defining regulations. Our toolbox was found to be useful for professionals in reflecting on their developments and making technologies societally relevant, thereby enhancing societies’ resilience.</p> Lorena Daphna Kuratle, Irina Dallo , Michèle Marti, Michael Stauffacher Copyright (c) 2024 Lorena Daphna Kuratle, Irina Dallo , Michèle Marti, Stauffacher Michael Fri, 01 Mar 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Ocean Bottom Seismometer Clock Correction using Ambient Seismic Noise <p>Ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) are equipped with seismic sensors that record acoustic and seismic events at the seafloor, which makes them suitable for investigating tectonic structures capable of generating earthquakes offshore. One critical parameter to obtain accurate earthquake locations is the absolute time of the incoming seismic signals recorded by the OBSs. It is, however, not possible to synchronize the internal clocks of the OBSs with a known reference time, given that GNSS signals are unable to reach the instrument at the sea bottom. To address this issue, here we introduce a new method to synchronize the clocks of large-scale OBS deployments. Our approach relies on the theoretical time-symmetry of time-lapse (averaged) crosscorrelations of ambient seismic noise. Deviations from symmetry are attributed to clock errors. This implies that the recovered clock errors will be obscured by lapse crosscorrelations' deviations from symmetry that are not due to clock errors. Non-uniform surface wave illumination patterns are arguably the most notable source which breaks the time symmetry. Using field data, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of non-uniform illumination patterns on the recovered clock errors can be mitigated by means of a weighted least-squares inversion that is based on station-station distances. In addition, our methodology permits the recovery of timing errors at the time of deployment of the OBSs. This error can be attributed to either: i) a wrong initial time synchronization of the OBS or ii) a timing error induced by changing temperature and pressure conditions while the OBS is sunk to the ocean floor. The methodology is implemented in an open-source Python package named OCloC, and we applied it to the OBS recordings acquired in the context of the IMAGE project in and around Reykjanes, Iceland. As expected, most OBSs suffered from clock drift. Surprisingly, we found incurred timing errors at the time of deployment for most of the OBSs.</p> David Naranjo, Laura Parisi, Sigurjón Jónsson, Philippe Jousset, Dieter Werthmüller, Cornelis Weemstra Copyright (c) 2024 David Naranjo, Laura Parisi, Sigurjón Jónsson, Philippe Jousset, Dieter Werthmüller, Cornelis Weemstra Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 DAS sensitivity to heterogeneity scales much smaller than the minimum wavelength <p>Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is a photonic technology allowing toconvert fiber-optics into long (tens of kilometers) and dense (every few meters) arrays of seismo-acoustic sensors which are basically measuring the strain of the cable all along the cable. The potential of such a distributed measurement is very important and has triggered strong attention in the seismology community for a wide range of applications. In this work, we focus on the interaction of such measurements with heterogeneities of scale much smaller than the wavefield minimum wavelength. With a simple 2-D numerical modeling, we first show that the effect of such small-scale heterogeneities, when located in the vicinity of the instruments, is very different depending on whether we measure particle velocity or strain rate: in the case of velocity, this effect is small but becomes very strong in the case of the strain rate. We then provide a physical explanation of these observations based on the homogenization method showing that indeed, the strain sensitivity to nearby heterogeneities is strong, which is not the case for more traditional velocity measurements. This effect appears as a coupling of the strain components to the DAS measurement. Such effects can be seen as a curse or an advantage depending on the applications.</p> Yann Capdeville, Anthony Sladen Copyright (c) 2024 Yann Capdeville, Anthony Sladen Thu, 25 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 PyOcto: A high-throughput seismic phase associator <p>Seismic phase association is an essential task for characterising seismicity: given a collection of phase picks, identify all seismic events in the data. In recent years, machine learning pickers have lead to a rapid growth in the number of seismic phase picks. Even though new associators have been suggested, these suffer from long runtimes and sensitivity issues when faced with dense seismic sequences. Here we introduce PyOcto, a novel phase associator tackling these issues. PyOcto uses 4D space-time partitioning and can employ homogeneous and 1D velocity models. We benchmark PyOcto against popular state of the art associators on two synthetic scenarios and a real, dense aftershock sequence. PyOcto consistently achieves detection sensitivities on par or above current algorithms. Furthermore, its runtime is consistently at least 10 times lower, with many scenarios reaching speedup factors above 50.On the challenging 2014 Iquique earthquake sequence, PyOcto achieves excellent detection capability while maintaining a speedup factor of at least 70 against the other models. PyOcto is available as an open source tool for Python on Github and through PyPI.</p> Jannes Münchmeyer Copyright (c) 2024 Jannes Münchmeyer Mon, 29 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Virtual Shake Robot: Simulating Dynamics of Precariously Balanced Rocks for Overturning and Large-displacement Processes <p> Understanding the dynamics of precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) is important for seismic hazard analysis and rockfall prediction. Utilizing a physics engine and robotic tools, we develop a virtual shake robot (VSR) to simulate the dynamics of PBRs during overturning and large-displacement processes. We present the background of physics engines and technical details of the VSR, including software architecture, mechanical structure, control system, and implementation procedures. Validation experiments show the median fragility contour from VSR simulation is within the 95% prediction intervals from previous physical experiments, when PGV/PGA is greater than 0.08 s. Using a physical mini shake robot, we validate the qualitative consistency of fragility anisotropy between the VSR and physical experiments. By overturning cuboids on flat terrain, the VSR reveals the relationship between fragility and geometric dimensions (e.g., aspect and scaling ratios). The ground motion orientation and lateral pedestal support affect PBR fragility. Large-displacement experiments estimate rock trajectories for different ground motions, which is useful for understanding the fate of toppled PBRs. Ground motions positively correlate with large displacement statistics such as mean trajectory length, mean largest velocity, and mean terminal distance. The overturning and large displacement processes of PBRs provide complementary methods of ground motion estimation.</p> Zhiang Chen, Ramón Arrowsmith, Jnaneshwar Das, Christine Wittich, Chris Madugo, Albert Kottke Copyright (c) 2024 Zhiang Chen, Ramón Arrowsmith, Jnaneshwar Das, Christine Wittich, Chris Madugo, Albert Kottke Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Comparison of geodetic slip-deficit and geologic fault slip rates reveals that variability of elastic strain accumulation and release rates on strike-slip faults is controlled by the relative structural complexity of plate-boundary fault systems <p>Comparison of geodetic slip-deficit rates with geologic fault slip rates on major strike-slip faults reveals marked differences in patterns of elastic strain accumulation on tectonically isolated faults relative to faults that are embedded within more complex plate-boundary fault systems. Specifically, we show that faults that extend through tectonically complex systems characterized by multiple, mechanically complementary faults (that is, different faults that are all accommodating the same deformation field), which we refer to as high-Coefficient of Complexity (or high-CoCo) faults, exhibit ratios between geodetic and geologic rates that vary and that depend on the displacement scales over which the geologic slip rates are averaged. This indicates that elastic strain accumulation rates on these faults change significantly through time, which in turn suggests that the rates of ductile shear beneath the seismogenic portion of faults also vary through time. This is consistent with models in which mechanically complementary faults trade off slip in time and space in response to varying mechanical and stress conditions on the different component faults. In marked contrast, structurally isolated (or low-CoCo) faults exhibit geologic slip rates that are similar to geodetic slip-deficit rates, regardless of the displacement and time scales over which the slip rates are averaged. Such faults experience relatively constant geologic fault slip rates as well as constant strain accumulation rate (aside from brief, rapid post-seismic intervals). This suggests that low-CoCo faultsd "keep up" with the rate imposed by the relative plate-boundary condition, since they are the only structures in their respective plate-boundary zone that can effectively accommodate the imposed steady plate motion. We hypothesize that the discrepancies between the small-displacement average geologic slip rates and geodetic slip-deficit rates may provide a means of assessing a switch of modes for some high-CoCo faults, transitioning from a slow mode to a faster mode, or vice versa. If so, the differences between geologic slip rates and geodetic slip-deficit rates on high-CoCo faults may indicate changes in a fault's behavior that could be used to refine next-generation probabilistic seismic hazard assessments.</p> Judith Gauriau, James Dolan Copyright (c) 2024 Judith Gauriau, James Dolan Thu, 22 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Influence of outer-rise faults on shallow décollement heterogeneity and sediment flux at the Japan trench <p>We investigate the impact of outer-rise normal fault subduction on the structural evolution of the décollement and frontal prism in a portion of the Japan trench that hosted the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. We use seismic reflection data to map the relative occurrence of sediment accretion, sediment subduction, and frontal tectonic erosion in the shallow portion of the subduction zone and correlate these deformation styles to the magnitude of outer-rise fault throw and incoming plate sediment thickness. These data reveal spatial heterogeneity in the modes of deformation over distances of 5-10 km that necessitate correlative heterogeneity in the geometry and composition of the shallow décollement over similar length-scales. We find that sediment accretion predominantly occurs in regions where incoming plate sediment thickness is greater than fault throw. In these areas, the décollement appears to be non-planar and compositionally homogenous. Conversely, frontal tectonic erosion and slope failures are predominantly observed in regions where fault throw is greater than sediment thickness. In these areas, the décollement may be planar but compositionally heterogeneous. Additionally, spatial variations in near trench slip appear to correlate with the dominant deformation modes, suggesting that both sediment thickness and outer-rise fault throw may be important controls on shallow megathrust behavior.</p> Emily Schottenfels, Christine Regalla, Yasuyuki Nakamura Copyright (c) 2024 Emily Schottenfels, Christine Regalla, Yasuyuki Nakamura Mon, 15 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 History and activities of the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre <p>The European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) provides rapid information on earthquakes and their effects, but does not operate seismic stations. It collects and merges parametric earthquake data from seismological agencies and networks around the world and collects earthquake observations from global earthquake eyewitnesses. Since its creation in 1975, it has developed strategies to complement earthquake monitoring activities of national agencies and coordinated its activities in Europe with its sister organisations ORFEUS and EFEHR as well as with global actors, while being part of the transformative EPOS initiative. The purpose of this article is to give a brief history of the EMSC and describe its activities, services and coordination mechanisms.</p> Rémy Bossu, Florian Haslinger, Hélène Hébert Copyright (c) 2024 Rémy Bossu, Florian Haslinger, Hélène Hébert Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 -0500 SeisMIC - an Open Source Python Toolset to Compute Velocity Changes from Ambient Seismic Noise <p>We present SeisMIC, a fast, versatile, and adaptable open-source software to estimate seismic velocity changes from ambient seismic noise. SeisMIC includes a broad set of tools and functions to facilitate end-to-end processing of ambient noise data, from data retrieval and raw data analysis via spectrogram computation, over waveform coherence analysis, to post-processing of the final velocity change estimates. A particular highlight of the software is its ability to invert velocity change time series onto a spatial grid, making it possible to create maps of velocity changes. To tackle the challenge of processing large continuous datasets, SeisMIC can exploit multithreading at high efficiency with an about five-time improvement in compute time compared to MSNoise, probably the most widespread ambient noise software. In this manuscript, we provide a short tutorial and tips for users on how to employ SeisMIC most effectively. Extensive and up-to-date documentation is available online. Its broad functionality combined with easy adaptability and high efficiency make SeisMIC a well-suited tool for studies across all scales.</p> Peter Makus, Christoph Sens-Schönfelder Copyright (c) 2024 Peter Makus, Christoph Sens-Schönfelder Sun, 04 Feb 2024 00:00:00 -0500 Seismoacoustic measurements of the OSIRIS-REx re-entry with an off-grid Raspberry PiShake <p>Hypersonic re-entries of spacecraft are valuable analogues for the identification and tracking of natural meteoroids re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. We report on the detection of seismic and acoustic signals from the OSIRIS-REx landing sequence, acquired near the point of peak capsule heating and recorded using a fully off-grid Raspberry PiShake sensor. This simple setup is able to record all the salient features of both the seismic and acoustic wavefields; including the primary shockwave, later reverberations, and possible locally induced surface waves. Peak overpressures of 0.7 Pa and ground velocities of 2x10<sup>-6</sup>m/s yield lower bound on the air-to-ground coupling factor between 3 and 44 Hz of 1.4x10<sup>-6</sup> m/s/Pa, comparable to results from other re-entries</p> Benjamin Fernando, Constantinos Charalambous, Christelle Saliby, Eleanor Sansom, Carene Larmat, David Buttsworth, Daniel Hicks, Roy Johnson, Kevin Lewis, Meaghan McCleary, Giuseppe Petricca, Nick Schmerr, Fabian Zander, Jennifer Inman Copyright (c) 2024 Benjamin Fernando, Constantinos Charalambous, Christelle Saliby, Eleanor Sansom, Carene Larmat, David Buttsworth, Daniel Hicks, Roy Johnson, Kevin Lewis, Meaghan McCleary, Giuseppe Petricca, Nick Schmerr, Fabian Zander, Jennifer Inman Tue, 26 Mar 2024 00:00:00 -0400