A call from early‑career Turkish scientists: seismic resilience is only feasible with “earthquake culture”





earthquake culture, science communication, earthquake hazard


Despite significant scientific advances in earthquake research and building codes, Türkiye remains vulnerable to earthquakes, as demonstrated by the tragic Kahramanmaraş earthquake in February 2023. In contrast, countries such as Chile and Japan have successfully reduced earthquake damage through strict enforcement of building codes and effective public awareness campaigns. This paper highlights the need for seismic resilience in Türkiye and proposes actionable guidelines to bridge the gap between science and society. These guidelines include comprehensive geoscience education, the establishment of local earthquake centers, effective science communication, preparation for future earthquakes through scenario modeling, and development of an earthquake culture. Geoscience education should be integrated into the education system, and opportunities for geoscientists should be increased. Local earthquake centers can improve seismic monitoring, research, and public outreach. Geoscientists should prioritize science communication training to engage the public and combat misinformation. Scenario modeling and annual preparedness exercises can improve earthquake preparedness across the country, and promoting earthquake memory and awareness initiatives will build a collective consciousness about earthquakes. By implementing these guidelines, Türkiye can build earthquake resilience and mitigate the impact of future earthquakes; however, the active engagement of scientists, institutions, and the public is essential to achieve earthquake resilience.


AFAD. (2021). 1-7 Mart Deprem Haftası’nı Hazırlık İle Değerlendirin-BASIN BÜLTENİ. https://www.afad.gov.tr/1-7-mart-deprem-haftasini-hazirlik-ile-degerlendirin. https://www.afad.gov.tr/1-7-mart-deprem-haftasini-hazirlik-ile-degerlendirin

AFAD. (2023). Türkiye Bina Deprem Yönetmeliği. https://www.afad.gov.tr/turkiye-bina-deprem-yonetmeligi. https://www.afad.gov.tr/turkiye-bina-deprem-yonetmeligi

Akçiğit, U., & Özcan Tok, E. (2020). Türkiye bilim raporu. TÜBA Raporları, 43.

Akkar, S., Azak, T., Çan, T., Çeken, U., Demircioğlu Tümsa, M. B., Duman, T. Y., Erdik, M., Ergintav, S., Kadirioğlu, F. T., Kalafat, D., Kale, Ö., Kartal, R. F., Kekovalı, K., Kılıç, T., Özalp, S., Altuncu Poyraz, S., Şeşetyan, K., Tekin, S., Yakut, A., … Zülfikar, Ö. (2018). Evolution of seismic hazard maps in Turkey. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16(8), 3197–3228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-018-0349-1

Aktug, B., Ozener, H., Dogru, A., Sabuncu, A., Turgut, B., Halicioglu, K., Yilmaz, O., & Havazli, E. (2016). Slip rates and seismic potential on the East Anatolian Fault System using an improved GPS velocity field. Journal of Geodynamics, 94–95, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2016.01.001

Allen, C. R. (1982). Comparisons between the North Anatolian fault of Turkey and the San Andreas fault of California. Multidisciplinary Approach to Earthquake Prediction: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Earthquake Prediction in the North Anatolian Fault Zone Held in Istanbul, March 31–April 5, 1980, 67–85.

Ambraseys, N., & Bilham, R. (2011). Corruption kills. Nature, 469, 153–155. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1038/469153a

Ambraseys, N. N. (1989). Temporary seismic quiescence: SE Turkey. Geophysical Journal International, 96(2), 311–331. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1989.tb04453.x

Barka, A. A., & Kadinsky-Cade, K. (1988). Strike-slip fault geometry in Turkey and its influence on earthquake activity. Tectonics, 7(3), 663–684. https://doi.org/10.1029/TC007i003p00663

Bashir, N., Sariyuce, I., & Rogers, M. (2023). A quake of unthinkable proportions is due in Istanbul. Residents ask if the city is prepared. In CNN International. https://www.cnn.com/2023/03/17/middleeast/turkey-earthquake-istanbul-mime-intl/index.html. https://www.cnn.com/2023/03/17/middleeast/turkey-earthquake-istanbul-mime-intl/index.html

Baytiyeh, H., & Öcal, A. (2016). High school students’ perceptions of earthquake disaster: A comparative study of Lebanon and Turkey. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 18, 56–63.

Becker, J. S., Potter, S. H., McBride, S. K., Wein, A., Doyle, E. E. H., & Paton, D. (2019). When the earth doesn’t stop shaking: How experiences over time influenced information needs, communication, and interpretation of aftershock information during the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence, New Zealand. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 34, 397–411. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.12.009

Bernard, R. E., & Cooperdock, E. H. (2018). No progress on diversity in 40 years. Nature Geoscience, 11(5), 292–295.

Bilham, R. (2013). Nicholas Neocles Ambraseys 1929–2012. Seismological Research Letters, 84(2), 173–176. https://doi.org/10.1785/0220130007

Bolt, J., & Van Zanden, J. L. (2020). Maddison style estimates of the evolution of the world economy. A new 2020 update. Maddison-Project Working Paper WP-15, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Bouchon, M., Karabulut, H., Bouin, M.-P., Schmittbuhl, J., Vallée, M., Archuleta, R., Das, S., Renard, F., & Marsan, D. (2010). Faulting characteristics of supershear earthquakes. Tectonophysics, 493(3–4), 244–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2010.06.011

Brondi, S., Benedetti, L., Tanga, R. C., & Bertoldo, R. (2021). Between oblivion and drastic evidence: How local communities cope with seismic risk by forgetting and remembering. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 56, 102132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102132

Burgaz, C. (2023). The road to earthquakes is paved with construction amnesties. In Gercek News. https://www.gerceknews.com/special-reports/the-road-to-earthquakes-is-paved-with-construction-amnesties-218763h. https://www.gerceknews.com/special-reports/the-road-to-earthquakes-is-paved-with-construction-amnesties-218763h

Cambaz, M. D., Özer, M., Güneş, Y., Ergün, T., Öğütcü, Z., Altuncu-Poyraz, S., Köseoğlu, A., Turhan, F., Yilmazer, M., Kekovali, K., Necmioğlu, Ö., Kalafat, D., Çakti, E., & Özener, H. (2021). Evolution of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) Seismic Network and the Data Center Facilities as a Primary Node of EIDA. Seismological Research Letters, 92(3), 1571–1580. https://doi.org/10.1785/0220200367

Çetin, K. Ö., Ilgaç, M., Can, G., & Çakır, E. (2023). Preliminary Reconnaissance Report on February 6, 2023, Pazarcık Mw=7.7 and Elbistan Mw=7.6, Kahramanmaraş-Türkiye Earthquakes.

Dal Zilio, L., & Ampuero, J.-P. (2023). Earthquake doublet in Turkey and Syria. Communications Earth & Environment, 4(1), 71. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-023-00747-z

Dewey, J. W. (1976). Seismicity of Northern Anatolia. Bullelin of the Seismological Society of America, 66(3), 843–868.

Dryhurst, S., Mulder, F., Dallo, I., Kerr, J. R., McBride, S. K., Fallou, L., & Becker, J. S. (2022). Fighting misinformation in seismology: Expert opinion on earthquake facts vs. fiction. Frontiers in Earth Science, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2022.937055

Duman, T. Y., & Emre, Ö. (2013). The East Anatolian Fault: geometry, segmentation and jog characteristics. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 372(1), 495–529. https://doi.org/10.1144/SP372.14

Dutt, K. (2020). Race and racism in the geosciences, Nat. Geosci., 13, 2–3.

Esteban, M., Tsimopoulou, V., Mikami, T., Yun, N. Y., Suppasri, A., & Shibayama, T. (2013). Recent tsunamis events and preparedness: Development of tsunami awareness in Indonesia, Chile and Japan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 5, 84–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2013.07.002

Falk, John H. (2006). An identity-centered approach to understanding museum learning. Curator: The Museum Journal, 49(2), 151–166.

Falk, John Howard, & Dierking, L. D. (2002). Lessons without limit: How free-choice learning is transforming education. Rowman Altamira.

FEMA. (2022). Earthquake Risk Training. https://www.fema.gov/emergency-managers/risk-management/earthquake/training. https://www.fema.gov/emergency-managers/risk-management/earthquake/training

Geological Society of America, G. (2021). GSA Position Statement: The importance of teaching Earth Science. https://www.geosociety.org/gsa/positions/position4.aspx. https://www.geosociety.org/gsa/positions/position4.aspx

Ghosh, S. K., & Cleland, N. (2012). Observations from the February 27, 2010, earthquake in Chile. PCI Journal, 57(1), 52–75. https://doi.org/10.15554/pcij.01012012.52.75

Gil, M., & Rivera, F. (2023). Strengthening the role of science and technology in disaster risk reduction: the Chilean strategy. Disasters, 47(1), 136–162. https://doi.org/10.1111/disa.12533

Gürer, D., Hubbard, J., & Bohon, W. (2023). Science on social media. Communications Earth & Environment, 4(1), 148.

Huber, B., Barnidge, M., Gil De Zúñiga, H., & Liu, J. (2019). Fostering public trust in science: The role of social media. Public Understanding of Science, 28(7), 759–777. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963662519869097

Hurriyet. (2023). District suffers no loss in devastating Quakes. In Hurriyet Daily News. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/district-suffers-no-loss-in-devastating-quakes-180815. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/district-suffers-no-loss-in-devastating-quakes-180815

Hussain, E., Kalaycıoğlu, S., Milliner, C. W., & Çakir, Z. (2023). Preconditioning the 2023 Kahramanmaraş (Türkiye) earthquake disaster. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, 1–3.

Ickert, J., & Stewart, I. S. (2016). Earthquake risk communication as dialogue – insights from a workshop in Istanbul’s urban renewal neighborhoods. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 16(5), 1157–1173. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-16-1157-2016

Inan, S., Ergintav, S., Saatçilar, R., Tüzel, B., & İravul, Y. (2007). Turkey makes major investment in earthquake research. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 88(34), 333–334. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007EO340002

Japan Earthquake Museum. (2023). The Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Disaster Memorial Museum. https://www.fipo.or.jp/lore/en/about. https://www.fipo.or.jp/lore/en/about

Joffe, H. (2012). Cultural barriers to earthquake preparedness: A new study shows how cultural factors in the United States, Japan and Turkey affect disaster planning. Risk Management, 59(5), 20–26.

Jones, L. M., Bernknopf, R. L., Cox, D. A., Goltz, J., Hudnut, K. W., Mileti, D. S., Perry, S., Ponti, D., Porter, K. A., Reichle, M. S., & others. (2008). The ShakeOut Scenario: Effects of a potential M7. 8 earthquake on the San Andreas fault in southern California. US Geological Survey.

Keane, C. (2022). Geoscience Enrollment and Degrees Continue to Decline through 2021. In American Geosciences Institute. https://www.americangeosciences.org/geoscience-currents/us-geoscience-enrollments-and-degrees-through-2021. https://www.americangeosciences.org/geoscience-currents/us-geoscience-enrollments-and-degrees-through-2021

Malecki, K. M. C., Keating, J. A., & Safdar, N. (2021). Crisis Communication and Public Perception of COVID-19 Risk in the Era of Social Media. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 72(4), 697–702. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa758

Martin, C., & MacDonald, B. H. (2020). Using interpersonal communication strategies to encourage science conversations on social media. PLOS ONE, 15(11), e0241972. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241972

McBride, S. K. (2018). Would You Like People to Listen to You? Be More Likable! Seismological Research Letters, 89(3), 1163–1164. https://doi.org/10.1785/0220180086

McBride, S. K., Llenos, A. L., Page, M. T., & van der Elst, N. (2019). #EarthquakeAdvisory: Exploring Discourse between Government Officials, News Media, and Social Media during the 2016 Bombay Beach Swarm. Seismological Research Letters, 91(1), 438–451. https://doi.org/10.1785/0220190082

Mileti, D., Cress, D., & Derouen, J. (2002). Earthquake Culture and Corporate Action. Sociological Forum, 17, 161–180. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014549708645

Mileti, D. S., & Darlington, J. D. (1997). The Role of Searching in Shaping Reactions to Earthquake Risk Information. Social Problems, 44, 89–103.

Milli Eğitim, B. (2018). T”urkiye Cumhuriyeti Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı öğretim programlarını izleme ve değerlendirme sistemi.

Museum of the North. (2023). University of Alaska Museum of the North. https://www.uaf.edu/museum/exhibits/virtual-exhibits/shake-earthquakes/index.php. https://www.uaf.edu/museum/exhibits/virtual-exhibits/shake-earthquakes/index.php

Nakaya, N., Nemoto, H., Yi, C., Sato, A., Shingu, K., Shoji, T., Sato, S., Tsuchiya, N., Nakamura, T., Narita, A., Kogure, M., Sugawara, Y., Yu, Z., Gunawansa, N., Kuriyama, S., Murao, O., Sato, T., Imamura, F., Tsuji, I., … Tomita, H. (2018). Effect of tsunami drill experience on evacuation behavior after the onset of the Great East Japan Earthquake. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 28, 206–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.02.037

NEHRP. (2023). National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. https://www.nehrp.gov/about/history.htm. https://www.nehrp.gov/about/history.htm

Oral, M., Yenel, A., Oral, E., Aydin, N., & Tuncay, T. (2015). Earthquake experience and preparedness in Turkey. Disaster Prevention and Management, 24(1), 21–37.

Ozdemir, R., Demir, C., & Catak, B. (2021). Faculty members’ earthquake preparedness levels and their related factors: a cross-sectional study from a university in a high-risk earthquake zone in Turkey. J Inj Violence Res.

Pearce, W., Niederer, S., Özkula, S. M., & Sánchez Querubín, N. (2019). The social media life of climate change: Platforms, publics, and future imaginaries. WIREs Climate Change, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.569

Petersen, G. M., Büyükakpinar, P., Vera Sanhueza, F. O., Metz, M., Cesca, S., Akbayram, K., Saul, J., & Dahm, T. (2023). The 2023 Southeast Türkiye Seismic Sequence: Rupture of a Complex Fault Network. The Seismic Record, 3(2), 134–143. https://doi.org/10.1785/0320230008

Presidency of the Republic of Türkiye, Human Resources Office. (2023). Uni-Veri. https://www.cbiko.gov.tr/en/projects/uni-veri. https://www.cbiko.gov.tr/en/projects/uni-veri

Ritchie, H. (2023). Opinion | 3 charts show how better buildings save lives in earthquakes. In The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2023/02/13/earthquake-deaths-chile-japan-turkey-compare/. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2023/02/13/earthquake-deaths-chile-japan-turkey-compare/

SCEC. (2023). Southern California Earthquake Center. https://www.scec.org/

ShakeOut. (2023). The Great California Shake Out. https://www.shakeout.org/california/index.html. https://www.shakeout.org/california/index.html

Stein, R. S., Barka, A. A., & Dieterich, J. H. (1997). Progressive failure on the North Anatolian fault since 1939 by earthquake stress triggering. Geophysical Journal International, 128(3), 594–604. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1997.tb05321.x

Stewart, I. S., Ickert, J., & Lacassin, R. (2017). Communicating Seismic Risk: the Geoethical Challenges of a People-Centred, Participatory Approach. Annals of Geophysics, 60.

Sumy, D. F., Jenkins, M. R., McBride, S. K., & de Groot, R.-M. (2022). Typology development of earthquake displays in free-choice learning environments, to inform earthquake early warning education in the United States. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 73, 102802.

Tekeli-Yesil, S., Kaya, M., & Tanner, M. (2019). The role of the print media in earthquake risk communication: Information available between 1996 and 2014 in Turkish newspapers. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 33, 284–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.10.014

TMMOB, İ. M. O. (2020). 30 Ekim 2020 Tarihinde Meydana Gelen Izmir Depremi Raporu [Techreport].

TMMOB, Ş. P. O. (2023). ŞEHİR PLANCILARI DAYANIŞMAYA VE MESLEKİ BİRİKİMLERİNİ DEPREMDE ZARAR GÖREN HALKIMIZIN HİZMETİNE SUNMAYA HAZIR. https://www.spo.org.tr/detay.php?sube=0&tip=3&kod=12179. https://www.spo.org.tr/detay.php?sube=0&tip=3&kod=12179

USGS. (2023). ANSS - Advanced National Seismic System. https://www.usgs.gov/programs/earthquake-hazards/anss-advanced-national-seismic-system. https://www.usgs.gov/programs/earthquake-hazards/anss-advanced-national-seismic-system

Vásquez, A., Marinkovic, K., Bernales, M., León, J., González, J., & Castro, S. (2018). Children’s views on evacuation drills and school preparedness: Mapping experiences and unfolding perspectives. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 28, 165–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.03.001

Webb, G. R. (2018). The Cultural Turn in Disaster Research: Understanding Resilience and Vulnerability Through the Lens of Culture. In H. Rodríguez, W. Donner, & J. E. Trainor (Eds.), Handbook of Disaster Research (pp. 109–121). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63254-4_6

Wessel, P., Smith, W. H. F., Scharroo, R., Luis, J., & Wobbe, F. (2013). Generic Mapping Tools: Improved Version Released. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 94(45), 409–410. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/2013EO450001

Yeginsu, C., Rebecca R., R., & Nimet, K. (2023). Earthquake-Proof, Not Corruption-Proof: Turkey’s Needless Deaths. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/05/04/world/europe/turkey-earthquake-corruption.html. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/05/04/world/europe/turkey-earthquake-corruption.html

Yildiz, A., Teeuw, R., Dickinson, J., & Roberts, J. (2020). Children’s earthquake preparedness and risk perception: A comparative study of two cities in Turkey, using a modified PRISM approach. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 49, 101666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101666



How to Cite

Karasözen, E., Büyükakpınar, P., Ertuncay, D., Havazlı, E., & Oral, E. (2023). A call from early‑career Turkish scientists: seismic resilience is only feasible with “earthquake culture”. Seismica, 2(3). https://doi.org/10.26443/seismica.v2i3.1012